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Indigenous Communities in Northern Ontario

Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN) represents 49 First Nation communities from Treaty 9 and 5 over an area of 210,000 square miles, with a total population of about 45,000 Ojibway, Cree and Ojicree. Nishnawbe Aski Nation has a main office in Thunder Bay and a branch office in Timmins.

The Anishinabek Nation represents 42 First Nation communities from Robinson Huron, Robinson Superior, Manitoulin Island Treaty and other areas in Southern Ontario over an area of 52,400 square miles, with a total population of about 42,000 Odawa, Ojibway, Pottawatomi, Delaware, Chippewa, Algonquin and Mississauga. The Anishinabek Nation has a main office in Nipissing First Nation, and branch offices in Fort William First Nation, Curve Lake First Nation and
Munsee-Delaware Nation.

Grand Council Treaty #3 represents 26 First Nation communities in Ontario and two in Manitoba over an area of 55,000 square miles, with a total population of about 25,000 Anishinaabe (Ojibway). Grand Council Treaty #3 has a main office in Kenora.

The Métis Nation of Ontario (MNO), initially formed in 1994, represents about 49,000 members situated in nine regions and 32 communities across Ontario at the provincial and national levels within Canada and at the international level. The Métis are recognized in Canada’s Constitution Act, 1982, as an Aboriginal people. The MNO has a main office in Ottawa and regional offices in Amhestburg, Brampton, Fort Frances, Penetanguishene, Thunder Bay, Timmins, Searchmont, and Sudbury.

Northern Ontario consists of six treaty areas:

  • Robinson-Huron, 1850, north of Lake Huron including Manitoulin Island;
  • Robinson-Superior, 1850, north of Lake Superior;
  • Manitoulin Island Treaty, 1862, Manitoulin Island excepting Wikwemikong Unceeded Indian Reserve #2;
  • Treaty 3, 1873, southern part of Northwestern Ontario;
  • Treaty 5, 1875, portion of area extends into western Ontario from Manitoba; and,
  • Treaty 9, northern two-thirds of Northern Ontario.



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